Urology focuses on the medical and surgical treatment of the male genitourinary system, female urinary tract, and the adrenal gland. Urologists treat patients with kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra, and male genital structure disorders and injuries. They often coordinate care with nephrologists for patients with kidney disease and may perform kidney transplantations. Urologists may also investigate and treat infertility and male sexual dysfunction. Diagnostic procedures are very important for urologists. They use endoscopic, percutaneous, and open surgery to treat congenital and acquired disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems and related structures. These specialists see male and female patients of all ages and work in both hospital and clinic settings.